Our Language—Linguistic Ideologies and Japanese Dialect Use in L1/L2 Interaction

Jae DiBello Takeuchi

Abstract


This study uses conversation data and ethnographic interviews to examine the role of meta-talk in speaker legitimacy for L2 Japanese speakers. Autoethnographic analysis of conversation data demonstrates how an L2 speaker is co-constructed (jointly positioned) as a (non)legitimate speaker of Japanese Dialect. The researcher, an L2 Japanese speaker, recorded Japanese conversations with L1 interlocutors, namely, her L1 Japanese spouse and in-laws. Two contrasting cases of L2 Japanese Dialect use are examined. In the first case, L1 interlocutors respond to the L2 speaker’s dialect with meta-talk about “our language,” co-constructing the L2 speaker as a non-legitimate dialect user. In the second case, the L2 speaker’s dialect use is affirmed when the L1 interlocutor uses similar dialect; no meta-talk occurs. The conversation data is supplemented with ethnographic interview data which underscores the prevalence of meta-talk. Meta-talk reveals speakers’ beliefs about legitimate speakerhood in which “our language” does not include L2 speakers. Conversely, the absence of meta-talk affirms the L2 speaker’s dialect use and depicts dialect as a shared form of “our language.” This study contributes to understanding linguistic ideologies, demonstrates how language ownership and speaker legitimacy manifest in Japanese interactions, and adds to research examining Japanese Dialect use by L2 speakers.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Agency for Cultural Affairs. 2010. 平成22年度国語に関する世論調査の結果について. http://www.bunka.go.jp/tokei_hakusho_shuppan/tokeichosa/kokugo_yoronchosa/pdf/h22_chosa_kekka.pdf. Accessed Sept. 6, 2018.

Anderson, Leon. 2006. Analytic autoethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 35(4): 373-395.

Ball, Christopher. 2004. Repertoires of registers: dialect in Japanese discourse. Language and Communication, 24: 355–380.

Blackledge, Adrien and Aneta Pavlenko. 2002. Ideologies of language in multilingual contexts. Multilingua, 21(2/3): 121-326.

Blommaert, Jan, ed. 1999. Language Ideological Debates. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Bourdieu, Pierre. 1977. “The economics of linguistic exchanges.” Social Science Information, 16(6): 645-668.

———1991. Language and symbolic power. Cambridge, MA.: Harvard University Press.

Doerr, Neriko Musha, ed. 2009. The Native Speaker Concept: Ethnographic Investigations of Native Speaker Effects. Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter.

Doinaka, A. (2005). 愛媛ことば図鑑:マンガで読む愛媛の方言. Matsuyama: Atorasu.

Duff, Patricia. 2008. Case study research in applied linguistics. New York; London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Carroll, Tessa. 2001a. Changing attitudes: Dialects versus the standard language in Japan. Language Change in East Asia, ed. by T. E. McAuley, 7–26. New York: Routledge.

——— 2001b. Language Planning and Language Change in Japan. New York: Routledge.

Erickson, Frederick. 1992. Ethnographic microanalysis of interaction. The Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education, ed. by Margaret Diane LeCompte and Wendy L. Millroy, 201-225. San Diego and London: Academic Press.

Gottlieb, Nanette. 2005. Language and Society in Japan. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.

Gordon, Cynthia, and Joshua Kraut. 2017. Interactional sociolinguistics. Routledge Handbook of Language in the Workplace, ed. by Bernadette Vine, 3-14. New York: Routledge.

Gumperz, John J. 2015. Interactional Sociolinguistics, a Personal Perspective. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis, ed. by Deborha Tannen, Heidi Hamilton and Deborah Schiffrin, 309-323. Oxford, Malden: John Wiley and Sons.

Heinrich, Patrick. 2012. The Making of Monolingual Japan: Language Ideology and Japanese Modernity. Bristol; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Hosoda, Yuri. 2006. Repair and relevance of differential language expertise in second language conversations. Applied Linguistics, 27(1): 25-50.

Hughes, Sherick and Julie Pennington. 2017. Autoethnography: Process, product, and possibility for critical social research. Los Angeles: Sage.

Iino, Masakazu. 2006. Norms of Interaction in a Japanese Homestay Setting: Toward a Two-Way Flow of Linguistic and Cultural Resources. Language Learners in Study Abroad Contexts ed. by M. A. DuFon and E. Churchill, 151–173. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Inoue, Fumio. 1991. New Dialect and Standard Language. Area and Culture Studies. 42: 49-68.

———1993. 価値の高い方言/低 い方言. Gekkan gengo 1: 20-27.

———2000. 日本語の値段. Tokyo: Taishuukan shoten

——— 2005. Econolinguistic aspects of multilingual signs in Japan. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, Vol. 2005(175-176): 157–177.

Inoue, Fumio and Nobuko Kibe. 2016. はじめて学ぶ方言学. Kyoto: Minerva shobo.

Inoue, Miyako. 2006. Vicarious Language : Gender and Linguistic Modernity in Japan. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Itakura, Hiroko. 2008. Attitudes towards Masculine Japanese Speech in Multilingual Professional Contexts of Hong Kong: Gender, Identity, and Native-Speaker Status. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 29(6): 467–482.

Iwasaki, Mariko. 2014. 若者と方言:八戸工業大学におけるアンケート. Bulletin of Hachinohe Institute of Technology, 33: 147-165.

Jinnouchi, Masataka. 2007. Dialect Boom in Japan. Dialectologia et Geolinguistica, (15): 44–51.

Kasper, Gabriele and Makoto Omori. 2010. Language and Culture. Sociolinguistics and Language Education, ed. by Nancy H. Hornberger and Sandra Lee McKay, 455-491. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Kobayashi, Takashi. 2004. アクセサリーとしての現代方言. Shakaigengokagaku, 7(1): 105–107.

——— 2007. 方言機能論への誘い. in方言の機能 , ed. by Takashi Kobayashi, v–xiii. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten.

Kramsch, Claire and Anne Whiteside. 2008. Language Ecology in Multilingual Settings. Towards a Theory of Symbolic Competence. Applied Linguistics Applied Linguistics, 29(4): 645–671.

Kubota, Ryuko. 2014. Standardization of Language and Culture. Rethinking language and culture in Japanese education: beyond the standard. edited by Shinji Sato and Neriko Musha Doerr, (19–34). Bristol; Buffalo: Multilingual Matters.

Kumagai, Shigeko. 2011. Tohoku dialects as a speech of rednecks: Language crossing in Japanese TV programs. Studies in Humanities, 61(1-2): 153-169.

Liddicoat, Anthony J. 2016. Native and non-native speaker identities in interaction: Trajectories of power. Applied Linguistics Review, 7(4): 409-429.

Long, Daniel. 1996. Quasi-Standard as a Linguistic Concept. American Speech, 71(2), 118-135.

Miyake, Yoshimi. 1995. A Dialect in the Face of the Standard: a Japanese Case Study. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society, 21(1): 217-225.

Mori, Junko. 2012. Social and Interactive Perspectives on Japanese Language Proficiency: Learning through Listening Towards Advanced Japanese. University Park, PA: CALPER Publications.

Mukai, Rumiko. 2000. 松山における外国人留学生の方言認識と方言教育のあり方--アンケート及び聞き取りテストの結果に基づいて. Annual bulletin of the Faculty of Humanities, Matsuyama Shinonome College, 8: 107-119.

NHK. 2005. NHK 21世紀に残したいふるさと日本のことば. 5(中国・四国地). Tokyo: Gakushu kenkyusha.

Norton, Bonny. 1997. Language, identity, and the ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly 31(3): 409-429.

Occhi, Debra J. 2008. Dialect speakers on dialect speech. Identity in Text Interpretation and Everyday Life, ed. by Masachiyo Amano, Lawrence Michael O’Toole, Zane Goebel, Shinya Shigemi, and Song-Wei, 99-111. Nagoya, Japan: Nagoya University Press.

Ohuchi, Nariyuki. 2014. 臨時災害放送局における方言利用の意義に関する考察: 福島県富岡町「おだがいさま FM」を事例としてGendai Shakai Bunka Kenkyuu (59):1-18.

Okamoto, Shigeko. 2008a. Speech style and the use of regional (Yamaguchi) and Standard Japanese in conversations. Style Shifting in Japanese, ed. by Kimberly Jones and Tsuyoshi Ono, 229–250. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing.

——— (2008b). The use of “regional” and “standard” Japanese in conversations: A case study from Osaka. Japanese Applied Linguistics :Discourse and Social Perspectives, ed. by Junko Mori and Amy S. Ohta, 132–159. London; New York: Continuum.

Okumura, Nao. 2016. Japanese Dialect Ideology from Meiji to the Present. M.A. thesis, Portland State University.

O’Rourke, Bernadette. 2011. Whose language is it? Struggles for language ownership in an Irish language classroom. Journal of Language, Identity and Education 10(5): 327-345.

Parmegiani, Andrea. 2014.The (dis)ownership of English: language and identity construction among Zulu students at the University of KwaZulu-Natal, International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 17:6, 683-694.

Pennycook, Alastair. 2017. The Cultural Politics of English as an International Language. London and New York: Routledge.

Rampton, Ben. 2010. Linguistic ethnography, interactional sociolinguistics and the study of identities. Applied Linguistics Methods: A reader, ed. by Caroline Coffin, Theresa Lillis, Kieran O'Halloran, 234-250. London and New York: Routledge.

Ramsey, S. Robert. 2004. The Japanese Language and the Making of Tradition. Japanese Language and Literature, 38(1): 81–110.

Rodriguez, Gabriel R. 2018. The Enregisterment of Dialects in Japanese YouTube Comments: A Comparative Analysis. M.A. thesis, Georgetown University.

Rumsey, Alan. 1990. Wording, meaning, and linguistic ideology. American Anthropologist, 92(2): 346–361.

Saldaña, Johnny. 2013. The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles; London; [etc.]: Sage.

Shibamoto Smith, Janet. S., and Debra J. Occhi. 2009. The green leaves of love: Japanese romantic heroines, authentic femininity, and dialect. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 13(4): 524-546.

Sibata, Takasi. 1998. Sociolinguistics in Japanese Contexts. Berlin, New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Siegal, Meryl. S. 1994. Looking East : Learning Japanese as a Second Language in Japan and the Interaction of Race, Gender and Social Context. Ph.D diss., University of California at Berkley.

Silverstein, Michael. 1979. Language Structure and Linguistic Ideology. The Elements: A Parasession on Linguistic Units and Levels. Chicago Linguistic Society:193-247.

SturtzSreetharan, Cindi L. 2006. “I Read the Nikkei, Too”: Crafting Positions of Authority and Masculinity in a Japanese Conversation. JOLA Journal of Linguistic Anthropology, 16(2): 173-193.

Sunaoshi, Yukako. 2004. Farm women’s professional discourse in Ibaraki. Japanese Language, Gender, and Ideology: Cultural Models and Real People, ed. by Shigeko Okamoto and Janet S. Shibamoto Smith, 187-204. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tanaka, Yukari. 2011.「方言コスプレ」の時代 : ニセ関西弁から龍馬語まで. Tokyo: Iwanami shoten.

Watanabe, Takumi and Kaori Karasawa. 2013. 共通語と大阪方言に対する顕在的・潜在的態度の検討. Shinrigaku kenkyuu, 84(1): 20-27.

Wee, Lionel. 2002. When English is not a mother tongue: Linguistic ownership and the Eurasian community in Singapore. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 23(4): 282-295.

Widdowson, Henry G. 1994. “The ownership of English.” TESOL quarterly 28(2): 377-389.

Redacted citations a, b, and c to be added after review.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.5195/jll.2020.146



Copyright (c) 2020 Jae DiBello Takeuchi

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.